In 1965, William Henry Scott, then a graduate student at the University of Santo Tomas, began a survey of pre-Hispanic sources for the study of Philippine history. Scott eventually revealed that the code was a forgery committed by Marco. When Scott presented these findings in his doctoral dissertation, which he defended on June 16, 1968, before a panel of prominent Filipino historians, including Teodoro Agoncillo, Horacio de la Costa, Marcelino Foronda, Mercedes Grau Santamaria, Nicolas Zafra, and Gregorio Zaide, not a single question was asked about the chapter he had called Jose E. Marco`s Contributions to Philippine Historiography. However, in 1971, an award known as the Order of Kalantiao was established, which is awarded to every citizen of the Philippines for outstanding and meritorious service to the Republic in the administration of justice and in the field of law.  Codification is widespread in countries that respect the civil law legal order. Spain, a country of civil law, introduced the practice of codification to the Philippines, which it had colonized from the end of the 16th century. Among the codes that Spain applied in the Philippines were the Spanish Civil Code and the Penal Code. Marco was a prolific writer on the history of the Philippines, although his work is full of flaws and total inventions. Nevertheless, throughout the 20th century, many scholars in the Philippines and the United States accepted Marcos` precolonial « source material » literally.
The most important of these was the Code of Kalantiyaw, which listed 18 orders for the appropriate punishment of certain moral and social transgressions. Depending on the seriousness of the offence, the penalty ranged from a light fine to cutting and throwing crocodiles. As early as the 1960s, historians began to question the validity of the code, but many Filipinos continued to view it as an important legal document. Nevertheless, in 2004, the National Historical Institute (now the National Historical Commission of the Philippines) declared the Kalantiyaw Code a hoax of the early 20th century. The ASEAN Charter entered into force on 15 December 2008. This is the basis for the realization of the ASEAN Community by providing the legal status and institutional framework of ASEAN. It also codifies ASEAN norms, rules and values, sets clear objectives for ASEAN; and represents accountability and compliance. Detailed comments on the charter can be found in the following book: Scott later published his findings, which debunk the code, in his book Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History.  Filipino historians then removed the code from future literature on the history of the Philippines.
 When Antonio M. Molina published a Spanish version of his book The Philippines Through the Centuries as Historia de Filipinas (Madrid, 1984), he replaced the code with a sentence: La tesis doctoral del historador Scott desbarata la existencia misma de dicho Código. (« Historian Scott`s doctoral dissertation destroys the existence of the code. »)  Although Philippine legal systems are, strictly speaking, republic laws, they can be distinguished in that the former represent a broader effort to bring together all aspects of a general area of law into a single legal act. On the other hand, the laws of the Republic are generally less extensive and more specific. Thus, while the Civil Code seeks to regulate all aspects of private law in the Philippines, a law of the Republic such as Republic Act No. 9048 would refer to a narrower area, such as the correction of civil registration in this case. Our editors will review what you have submitted and decide if the article needs to be revised. Did you know? The Code of Hammurabi contains many severe punishments that sometimes require the removal of the offender`s tongue, hands, breasts, eyes or ear. But the Code is also one of the earliest examples of the presumption of innocence of an accused until proven guilty. This guide will help you explore the legal systems of the 10 Southeast Asian countries that make up the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
Information on ASEAN and human rights can be found on the Southeast Asia page of our Human Rights Research Guide. The codification of laws is a common practice in the Philippines. Many general areas of substantive law, such as criminal, civil and labour law, are governed by legislation. The practice of codification was maintained during the American colonial period, although the United States was a common law jurisdiction. During the same period, however, many common law principles found their way into the legal system through statutes and court decisions. The precedents of the Supreme Court of the Philippines have been accepted as binding, a practice more suited to common law jurisdictions. Eventually, the Philippine legal system emerged in such a way that, while the practice of codification remained popular, courts were not prevented from invoking principles developed in the common law or from using methods of legal interpretation to arrive at an interpretation of codal provisions that would in itself be binding in Philippine law.  [a] In 1990, Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo described the codex as a « controversial document. »  Despite doubts about its authenticity, some historical texts continue to present it as historical fact.  Since the formation of local legislative bodies in the Philippines, Philippine laws have been enacted by the legislature in the exercise of its legislative powers.
Since 1946, laws passed by Congress, including legislation, have been called Republic Acts. [b] Nevertheless, the change in Philippine legal systems is achieved through the enactment of Republic laws. The laws of the Republic have also been used to enact laws in areas where competences have proved inadequate. For example, while drug possession was punishable under the revised Penal Code of the 1930s, the broader focus on illicit drugs in the 1960s and 1970s led to new laws that increased penalties for drug possession and trafficking. Instead of making amendments to the revised Penal Code, Congress opted for a special law, the Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972. The Code of Rajah Kalantiaw was an alleged code of law in the epic story of the Maragta, believed to have been written in 1433 by Datu Kalantiaw, a chief of the island of Negros in the Philippines. It is now generally accepted by historians that documents supporting the existence and history of the codex « appear to be deliberate inventions without historical validity. » written in 1913 by a priest named José Marco as part of a historical fiction entitled Las antiguas leyendas de la Isla de Negros (German: The ancient legends of the island of Negros).  Hammurabi combined his military and political advances with irrigation projects and the construction of fortifications and temples celebrating the patron deity of Babylon, Marduk. Hammurabi`s time Babylon is now buried beneath the region`s water table, and all the records he kept have long since been dissolved, but clay tablets discovered at other ancient sites give a glimpse into the king`s personality and statesman. In his book Struggle for Freedom (2008), Cecilio Duka provides a complete interpretation of the code for the « critical examination » of the reader. to decide on its accuracy and accuracy ».
 Kalantiyaw Code, an alleged pre-Hispanic Philippine penal code, purportedly written in 1433 and discovered on Panay Island in 1614. Subsequent research has raised doubts about the code`s « discoverer, » José E. Marco, as a peddler of historical fraud. Obey Him: No one should have wives too young, nor be more than he can provide, nor spend much luxury. Those who do not obey do not obey, are condemned to swim for three hours and are flogged to death with spikes for the second time. Beginning in the American period, there were efforts to revise the Spanish codes, which had remained in force even after the end of Spanish rule. A new revised penal code was promulgated in 1930, while a new civil code entered into force in 1950. In 1917, historian José Marco wrote about the Code of Kalantiaw in his book Historia Prehispana de Filipinas (« Pre-Hispanic History of the Philippines »), in which he moved the place of origin of the Negros Codex to the Panay Province of Aklan, suspecting that it might be related to the Ati-atihan festival. Other authors throughout the 20th century gave credence to history and code.
It was first accepted scientifically when Marco donated five manuscripts of the falsified documents to American historian James Alexander Robertson. Robertson introduced it to San Francisco in 1915 in an article entitled Social Structure and Ideas of Law Among the First Filipino Peoples, in a recently discovered pre-Hispanic penal code of the Philippine Islands. Robertson was a notable supporter of the anti-Spanish propaganda of the « black legend » and had also intentionally distorted translations of Spanish documents from the Philippines in the compilation The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 (1903-1907), co-authored with Emma Helen Blair.  Black codes were restrictive laws designed to restrict the freedom of African Americans and ensure their availability as cheap labor after slavery was abolished during the Civil War. Although the Union victory gave freedom to about 4 million slaves, the Union won the freedom of the Slave Victory in the Army. The Code, which entered into force in 1917, has been revised and supplemented several times, having entered into force in 1987. The stele was packed and shipped to the Louvre in Paris, and in less than a year it was translated and widely published as the first example of a written code of law – one that was older but had striking parallels with the laws of the Hebrew Old Testament.